The following is a sweet news story about an Owl undergoing rehabilitation in Spain with acupuncture –
Also with regard to Veterinary Acupuncture, consistent with my neuro-physiological, contemporary world reinventing of acupuncture, here’s a link to a book review of –Essentials of Western Veterinary Acupuncture, Lindley S, Cummings M. Blackwell Publishing Professional, Ames, Iowa, USA, 2006,
Thomas martin LAc.
As a followup to my previous post – http://www.wellnessclarity.com/?p=183, I am reposting an essay below I wrote almost 10 years ago called – Toward a Post-Traditional Revision Of Acupuncture. Judging by emails received after the initial posting, acupuncturists in the US and a few other countries found it useful. The essay was also published on the National Guild of Oriental Medicines website in an edited form.
For the reasons summarized below the need for change in the acupuncture profession has become more apparent and more urgent in the intervening 10 years since writing the above article.
The two main concerns are; the failure to thrive financially for the majority of practitioners and continuing isolation of the profession in the contemporary scientific medical environment. Little has changed on these two linked fronts in the past ten years, in fact despite increased research and media attention given acupuncture therapy, the situation has worsened.
Also the high quality research carried out mostly in the West shows that elaborate traditional or neo-traditional acupuncture treatment models and types of acupuncture fail to show better outcomes compared to simple treatment models based on modern anatomy and physiology.
In other words – the sit up and take notice implication is – style or length and complexity of acupuncture training have little effect on clinical outcomes as long as practitioners are trained for contemporary medical competency. As an acupuncturist friend said recently, “I now know this could be taught in a year, not three or four years”.
See Medscape Medical News > Neurology Acupuncture Superior to Placebo, Usual Care for Chronic Pain, by Pauline Anderson, September 10, 2012 in which Dr Andrew Vickers a seasoned researcher of acupuncture states –
The type of acupuncture didn’t seem to make a difference to the results, said Dr. Vickers. “Some acupuncturists will tell you not to go to such and such a person because that person doesn’t put the needles in the right way, or they don’t use the right theories, or they’re not as well trained, but the particular type of acupuncture you get doesn’t seem to make a large difference.”
Though feared by some practitioners, the wholism and naturalism associated with acupuncture and oriental medicine is not lost with a modern scientific iteration. Nor is this reconfiguring a capitulation to scientific materialism as a final statement on human life, it simply follows from the clear evidence that acupuncture is a neuromuscular mediated treatment that positively modifies physiological functioning.
I have no affinity with the arrogant debunking of acupuncture often featured in contemporary medical editorials. Simply put however acupuncture, by the very best evidence available, is a nervous system mediated treatment, not energy medicine. The continuing wholesale depiction of it as energy medicine does disservice to both acupuncture as a physiological treatment and to authentic practice of healing. This also ignores the central mind-body effect in all medicine, the placebo effect, a strong real world addition to the physiological proven acupuncture effect. An effect that has been poached from, so to speak, by the plethora of acupuncture styles used today, arrogating healing via the placebo effect into their own preferred mystical or quasi scientific theories.
To summarize the main points are –
The Qi/meridian theory is being increasingly abandoned by discerning acupuncturists given lack of evidence for it despite decades of research. (there is a strong movement in this direction even in China according to YunTao Ma)Also for lack of historical support due to poorly translated and misinterpreted traditional texts, and due to failure to cohere with contemporary medical science. And I might add, as many acupuncturists, after years of real-world experience, find themselves outgrowing the belief systems and closed, untestable theories inculcated at acupuncture school.
High quality research shows little or no difference between acupuncture styles/theories and treatment outcomes, suggesting a common physiological basis. Showing that simple contemporary medical acupuncture works at least as well as elaborate, arcane traditional and neo-traditional acupuncture. This also provides an opportunity for cost effective, streamlined training programs that don’t involve learning new, almost religious like, belief systems. As far as I know acupuncture schools have yet to respond whole heartedly to this in transforming their programs. Nor to link their programs and curriculums to the ability of graduates to pay down their loans in 10 years.
As outlined in my previous article http://www.wellnessclarity.com/?p=183, the acupuncture profession is only economically viable for a few. For the vast majority it is essentially a part time profession either requiring financial support from other means or featuring sustained low economic status. Job prospects are close to nil with well over 90% of graduates forced to setup private practices.
Along with this it is usual that acupuncture school graduates start their professional life with high debt burdens ($80,000 to $180,000) they may never repay through professional earnings. It is an open question whether acupuncture schools are abusing the federal student loan system with these facts becoming more established.
Below are some resources that clearly show how acupuncture can be learned, practiced, researched and explained entirely within a contemporary scientific view without downplaying its wholism and the non-quantifiable aspects of the art of practice. You will enjoy the clarity, simplicity and for the most part lack of dogmatism of this evolving approach!
An Introduction To Western Medical Acupuncture – http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Western-Medical-Acupuncture-1e/dp/0443071772/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1400612651&sr=1-1&keywords=western+medical+acupuncture
Acupuncture In Medicine – http://aim.bmj.com
Energy Meridian Misconceptions by D Kendall http://www.tedpriebe.com/documents/Kendall_SJIM_meridians. pdf
Toward a Post-Traditional Revision Of Acupuncture
by Thomas Martin, MA, LAc.
In recent years numerous researchers, practitioners and commentators of contemporary traditional acupuncture have questioned the validity of central concepts in this practice and therefore the integrity and accuracy of its core theories. The theoretical basis of contemporary traditional acupuncture is thus shown to be not what it has been made to appear like – an extraordinary metaphysical system linking all parts of the body/mind in a subtle energetic system. It is now clear to those who are prepared to think and look beyond the self enclosing loops of traditional dogma, that after four decades of research there is no evidence meridians exist nor that Qi as energy that moves around exists. Even precise acupoints for the most part don’t exist. (See Pomeranz; Ernst & White Ed.; Campbell; Mann; Ma, Ma and Cho; Kendall).
And yet acupuncture is effective, and that it appears to involve a physical interrelatedness of parts of the body via the peripheral and central nervous systems and brain increasingly recognized through scientific study.
Common contemporary usage of terms Qi and Meridian, both central concepts of acupuncture and Chinese medicine are based upon mistranslations (Kendall). Qi is thought to be untranslatable by many Chinese medicine scholars (the Chinese pictogram shows steam over cooking grains). Chinese medicine scholar Paul Unshuld considers the word “vapor” or “subtle influences” as close translations. Others consider “vital strength” or “functional activity” to be approximate meanings. Translation of Qi as energy is widely considered erroneous by scholars of Chinese medicine.
Consider the visual appearance of acupuncture meridians as they are shown in contemporary textbooks. Despite ancient comparisons of meridians with streams, rivers and seas their actual appearance is one of artificial superimposition over the body. Compared with the branching, flowing nature of the nervous system and blood vessels, meridians are depicted with straight lines and zigzags. This glaring discrepancy rarely seems to be questioned by traditionally trained acupuncturists and acupuncture teachers. Instead the implicit assumption seems to be that materialist science could never be privy to such subtle manifestations and that one day their existence will be proven.
Despite the historical evidence that it was originally meant to represent pre-modern shorthand for the vascular system, the meridian system shows up repeatedly in contemporary books and articles as supposed evidence of subtle metaphysical energy in the body. (Long-xiang Huang in Ma, Ma and Cho. Also see p 170 to 171 in Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen, Chinese medicine scholar Paul Unschuld’s survey of this important classical work where the mai or conduit vessels are described as definite anatomical, tubular structures that carry blood).
Contemporary acupuncture continues to be “explained” to patients and the general public as unblocking energy flowing in the meridians, despite the fact that energy as usable force does not move around in the body but is produced in cellular organelles called mitochondria. Nutrients, oxygen and hormonal substances move around in the blood and nerves conduct signals.
Even the local State Acupuncture Association brochure states, “pain and disease are caused by either an imbalance or a blockage of energy circulating in the body. Acupuncture restores the proper flow of energy, returning the body to good health”. Given that such a statement, which is endemic in the practice of acupuncture, has zero supporting evidence and seems to ignore accumulating proof of a peripheral nervous system-brain connection in acupuncture stimulation, it is small wonder that acupuncturists continue to struggle on the fringes of evidence-based contemporary medicine despite growing public interest.
Doyen of European Medical Acupuncture Felix Mann abandoned the meridian/Qi theory several decades ago after writing some of the first English language textbooks on traditional Chinese medicine and studying in China. Even as a rough imaging guide he points out that acupuncture meridians are clearly as artificial as the meridians around the globe, and that the radiation sensation evoked by acupuncture simply doesn’t conform to meridian pathways. He also abandons precise acupoint location, showing that acupuncture effects can often be obtained by needling fairly large areas and in some cases anywhere on the body. This is frequently borne out in studies that show the efficacy of so called placebo needling at a distance from classical acupoints.
The sheer anatomical precision of contemporary acupuncture meridian charts replete with detailed connections to organs and musculature are clearly a modern construction. The irony here is that these centrally important charts really owe a great deal to modern medical anatomy in that Chinese medicine never had detailed anatomical charts and so certainly could not have had such precisely detailed diagrams of the meridians connected to anatomical organs.
Chinese medicine scholar Paul Unschuld has stated that 95% of books written in the west on Chinese medicine “reflect Western expectations rather than Chinese historical reality.” (Acupuncture Today, July 2004) In other words western literature on this subject (including probably most texts used in acupuncture schools) say more about what westerners would like to have in modern biomedicine than about accurate renditions of Chinese medicine.
The seemingly unified, metaphysically sophisticated traditional system taught to most acupuncture students turns out in fact to be a pastiche of various traditions and theories of both Chinese and Western origin. In many ways the traditional Chinese medicine that has become so popular in contemporary alternative medicine is a fairly confused theoretical construction highly influenced by western New Age vitalist hopes and expectations. Author and longstanding Chinese medicine practitioner D. E. Kendall makes it clear in the introduction to his book The Dao Of Chinese Medicine that for centuries Chinese medical thought has been deeply affected by Western ideas and mistranslations via redaction. The mistranslations of “mai” as meridians and not blood vessels, and of Qi as energy and not as oxygenated blood, are what Kendall considers to be the main confusions driving Chinese medicine into the realm of the metaphysical, and largely alienating it from mainstream medicine.
Even in the history of Chinese medicine, theories have often been retained due to excessive conservatism, and made to coexist with theories more empirically verifiable, thus adding to the current confusion. Professor Long-xiang Huang of the Acupuncture Research Institute of the Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Beijing has, over many years, extensively researched traditional manuscripts. He has concluded that classical medical books such as the Huang Di Nei Jing comprise various channel (meridian) theories from different authors, different historical periods and different areas of medical experience. The tendency was to create an often forcedly integrated theory of acupuncture and Chinese medicine. Long-xiang Huang points out that when clinical facts did not fit the theory they where suppressed in favor of continuance of the theory. The Chinese term for this is “cutting the foot to fit the shoe”. (See the introduction to Biomedical Acupuncture for Pain Management, Ma, Ma and Cho)
A glaring example of disconnection between theoretical description and actual clinical use of meridians is the absence of empirical uses for the Large Intestine and Small Intestine points to treat the anatomical intestines. Apart from the generalized anodyne and anti-infective effects of Li4 and Li11, these meridians don’t treat diseases of the small and large bowels. For any truly empirical theory such glaring discrepancies would mean the questioning of that theory. Why then doesn’t this happen in Chinese medicine? Why does so much of Chinese medical dogma continue to be taught in Western acupuncture colleges without being questioned and abandoned when found wanting? In a recent article in The New York Times (October 22nd 2005) Dr. Xu Tian a Chinese scientist from Zhejiang Province who has made an international breakthrough in cellular genetics stated that his country needs a “new revolution” in order to break free from a “system that teaches people to follow the rules, not to be an innovator”. He adds that thousands of years of tradition would have to be overcome. A tradition “that has always avoided exploring different ways of thinking and exploring, and has emphasized staying within the system.” Why do Westerners tolerate so much dogma, obscurity and unquestioning acceptance at acupuncture school?
As Felix Mann has pointed out in Reinventing Acupuncture, ancient Chinese scholars, like scholars anywhere, were prone to grandiose theoretical elaborations that speak more to the cosmological predilections of the day than to practical efficacy. Those doing the practical work in the messy realities of daily life are more inclined to use what works, with minimal theoretical basis. This is how acupuncture was likely discovered and how it has been practiced over the centuries, not necessarily by the practitioners who wrote books but by those we may never hear about. As Francois Beyens (See White and Ernst, p391 – p407) has put it, throughout the tradition of acupuncture there has always “run a strongly pragmatic approach to treatment” whereby theory has only been used as far as it helps. He adds that initially “the theory of acupuncture was firmly observation based, but the Chinese cultural love for symmetry and order caused the nucleus of practically based observation to be filled out and rounded off, so that it is now difficult to determine in the laws and theories that have been handed down to us by tradition where the scientific logic ends and the fantasy begins.” It appears that even in contemporary practice elaborate theoretical schemes are in a sense still parasitic on this basic efficacy.
My argument for contemporary acupuncture is that it can and does work well with a finely honed empirical skill and virtually no traditional theoretical basis. Acupuncture has complex effects yet is in the end a disarmingly simple technique. I think it is this fact that makes the practice of acupuncture so forgiving in its generosity to enable a plethora of systems and approaches. The theoretical system and its accompanying explanatory mesh can be entirely fanciful, however the fact is that piercing the skin in certain broad areas has complex physiological effects. The simple act of stimulating the peripheral nervous system with a needle defines acupuncture. It is important to note that when nerves supplying acupoint areas are cut or blocked there is no acupuncture effect.
There are some indications that even precise location of needle stimulus is not always essential in producing a healing effect with acupuncture. This is evident with so called placebo needling in modern studies where clinical results can be the same as or close to those using traditional acupiont locations. This fact is graphically demonstrated in fMRI brain studies of acupuncture stimulation where traditional and placebo points produce almost identical brain images of pain amelioration. (P39 Biomedical Acupuncture For Pain Management; Ma, Ma and Cho).
It may also be that acupionts can be virtually created through a kind of neuroplasticity. This effect is suggested in an experiment carried out where volunteers with normal neurological function were given tactile stimulation to the right lower lip and at the same time their right median nerve was painfully stimulated electrically. When the lip was again tactilely stimulated without the electrical pulse to the median nerve the volunteers nevertheless again felt the sensation in the medial nerve. This suggests the creation of a brain map resulting in a conditioned connection between two areas of the body hitherto considered unconnected by a direct neural pathway. (Campbell).
Similarly needling anywhere in the body may re-set the nervous system through connecting the treatment site with a distant area of pain previously not directly connected in the brain. According to Campbell in Acupuncture in Practice patient expectation may prime parts of the limbic system in the brain, which in turn may ready the nervous system for the acupuncture healing effect. Neural conditioning is then deactivated as acupuncture stimulates homeostasis resulting in a return to a healthier nervous system. This effect occurs despite there being no traditionally theoretical connection between the acupoint and the position of the pain.
It may be as suggested by the authors of Biomedical Acupuncture For Pain Management that acupuncture, for the most part is non-specific, the generalized homeostatic stimulation effect is what is important and not the traditional Organ, Meridian, 5 phases or other supposed nature of the acupoint. With further studies such as the fMRI study above this may well be shown. From research it’s clear that the so-called placebo effect in acupuncture is considerable. It’s also apparent from research examples that sham acupuncture points near standard acupoints are frequently as effective.
These facts don’t prove that acupuncture has no independent effect but that the effect of treatment (as with any medical treatment) is often bound up with and dependent upon psychological and other factors. This ‘enmeshing’ makes the practice of acupuncture fluid and somewhat plastic, sustaining a plethora of theories and practices often contradicting each other. As Ma, Ma and Cho point out there are 80 different styles of acupuncture in China alone. Belief/expectation effects will prime certain brain centers in the patient, perhaps at least some of the time, enhancing treatment outcomes. However this effect may well be rooted in the flavor of the day or of the current historical period (anti-materialism for example) so will be at least in part culturally conditioned. The effect may not be as robust when conditions change and are surpassed by new cultural expectations.
In any case the placebo effect tends to wear off over time in the course of a series of treatments, whereas the acupuncture effect increases through the intitial treatment series and frequently remains stable for many months. Additionally acupuncture is an effective treatment in animals.
A contemporary transparent approach to empirical acupuncture will place all theories on hold or at least be cautious and tentative with their use. Anyhow, a simple pragmatic use of empirical acupuncture brings along its own skill and confidence which more than adequately fulfills the non-specific psychological treatment enhancing side of the technique. In addition to this aura of skill and effectiveness the biomedical post-traditional practice of acupuncture (based on current and developing neuro-hormonal understanding) can be more readily explained and communicated to patients and other health professionals in the language of contemporary medicine and science. It is noteworthy that in studies of acupuncture there is little difference in outcomes between acupuncturists practicing different styles – including a modern biomedical approach. All styles achieve about a 75% effectiveness rate. (Campbell) This also suggests that whether acupuncture training is short or the usual 3 to 4 years, results are the same in the hands of an experienced clinician.
All medicine is headed to some degree in the direction of science. Even therapies that are not currently understood scientifically and may even suggest aspects of mind/body functioning that stand outside conventional paradigms need to be tested for effectiveness and appropriate application. A definition of science I find particularly cogent here is that attributed to the late physicist Richard Feynman; “science is a way of trying not to fool ourselves”. This is an important definition for the contemporary practice of Chinese medicine in the West where critical thinking is sorely lacking. As shown above, we are not even practicing traditional Chinese medicine in anywhere near its historical form, and this may in fact be impossible.
For decades Traditional Chinese Medicine practice has been based on central mistranslations and misconceptions pertaining to Qi, Blood and “mai” or channels. The argument that if it’s ancient it must be true does not look as convincing in this light. In the words of Long-xiang Huang it is the task of forward looking practitioners to pick out the “pearls” from the confusion of traditional theory and connect them with a new biomedical “string.” To this end there needs to be more open discussion about clinical efficacy without tying everything back to traditional dogma. Additionally the fostering of careful studies is needed to develop new approaches and to gain evidence for simple theories to replace old theories and approaches. (See Anthony Campbell’s Where To Place the Needles and for How Long for a discussion on modern theoretical approaches to acupuncture practice, as well as his outline of a contemporary atheoretical approach.) There is currently, decades of clinical experience in what could be termed a post-traditional approach to acupuncture especially in England and Europe. The approaches of the following highly accomplished practitioners of this medical art, to name a few, suggest a new beginning: Felix Mann; Anthony Campbell; C. Chan Gunn; Yun-Tao Ma, Mila Ma and Zang Hee Cho; H. C. Dung; P.E.Baldry; Adrian White. Their integrative theories and methodologies can and should be taught, in the very least, as an alternative track in contemporary acupuncture colleges.
In summary, to answer the charge that a modern approach to acupuncture lacks spirituality, it would be fair to say we practice acupuncture primarily to participate in the great medical adventure of relieving suffering and optimizing health and wellness, not simply to satisfy our own need for spiritual/philosophical meaning through grand theories. Is it not spiritual enough to have the capacity to relieve suffering for human beings of all walks of life and animals as well? Also as far as holism goes, acupuncture is inherently holistic without traditional theory, as it stimulates homeostasis and self-healing through the very act of piercing the skin. This probably occurs based upon ancient biological survival responses to wounds, acupuncture being a micro wound. (Ma, Ma, and Cho).
We need to be highly practical and effective yet simple and accessible and to fit the modality of acupuncture and Chinese medicine into the understanding and medical milieu of our times. Acupuncture is essentially a simple and effective technique, which can be taught in a simplified and contemporary manner, refined through experience, and integrated widely into modern biomedicine. It is a method of relieving suffering, inherently holistic in its effect, with minimal side effects. Hence the need of a post–traditional integrative revision.
© Thomas Martin,
Medical Acupuncture – A Western Scientific Approach, Jacpueline Filshie, Adrian White
Acupuncture In Practice – Beyond Points and Meridians, Anthony Campbell
Reinventing Acupuncture – A New Concept Of Ancient Chinese Medicine, Felix Mann
The Gunn Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain – Intramuscular Stimulation for Myofascial Pain of Radiculopathic Origin, C Chan Gunn
Biomedical Acupuncture for Pain Management – An Integrative Approach, Yun-Tao Ma, Mila Ma, Zang Hee Cho
Huang Di Nei Jing Su Wen – Nature, Knowledge, Imagery in an Ancient Chinese Medical Text; Paul Unschuld
Problems with the Energy – Meridian Theory (PDF), D. E. Kendall.
Bruce Pomeranz interview by Bonnie Horrigen in Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine; Nov. 1996, Vol.2, No.6, p.85 – 91
Where to Place the Needles and for How Long? Anthony Campbell
The following article by Dr.Lorenzo Cohen, Ph.D., Professor and Director of the Integrative Medicine Program at the University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center appeared in Huffington Post on December 7th, 2013. The article confirms many of the clinical uses for acupuncture in the area of Oncology. These uses are certainly confirmed by myself and other colleagues who have been working in this field utilizing acupuncture and herbal therapy for the past 20 years. Also medical treatment for cancer can easily feel ‘industrial’ and depersonalizing and the care received in acupuncture clinics can help people going through treatment for cancer feel re-empowered, nourished and supported.
In the article the author states that the “mechanisms are not well understood”, this however is not true any longer with several writers/researchers outlining much of acupuncture’s modes of action in modern scientific understanding. See for example – http://www.amazon.com/Biomedical-Acupuncture-Pain-Management-Integrative/dp/0443066590 and http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Western-Medical-Acupuncture-1e/dp/0443071772/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1386465583&sr=1-1&keywords=western+acupuncture
See also – http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23341529
The systematic review, published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, searched the worldwide literature for randomized, controlled trials evaluating the use of acupuncture for symptom management in cancer patients. Forty-one studies were found for the treatment of eight symptoms (pain — 11, nausea/vomiting — 11, postoperative ileus (constipation) — eight, xerostomia (dry mouth) — four, hot flashes — seven, fatigue — three, anxiety/depression/mood disorders — five, and sleep disturbance — three), and were rated for study quality and whether outcomes were positive or negative.
One well-designed large study undefined for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, found electroacupuncture worked better than anti-nausea medications or sham acupuncture (minimal needling) in women with breast cancer. Although less clear, the evidence also suggests acupuncture is helpful for pain control. None of the identified studies were classified as having a low risk of bias due to study weaknesses, but nine of the 11 pain studies had positive results favoring its use. For the other symptoms assessed, the quality of the studies was lower, but there is reason to believe that with larger more rigorous studies, acupuncture may be found beneficial for some of these conditions as well.
The use of acupuncture for symptom control in oncology is important to consider. Findings from this review and others indicate it is an appropriate treatment alongside conventional care for chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting, although additional studies are needed to better understand how it works and which patients might benefit most. For other symptoms, the specific effects of acupuncture remain undetermined, primarily due to weaknesses in the studies. As a low-risk, cost-effective treatment option, acupuncture may be helpful when combined with conventional care for patients suffering from uncontrolled treatment-related side effects or in those for whom other treatment approaches have failed.”
1. Garcia MK, McQuade J, Haddad R, Patel S, Lee R, Palmer JL, Yang P, Cohen L. “Acupuncture in cancer care: a systematic review.” Journal of Clinical Oncology (Published online before print Jan. 22, 2013). doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.43.5818)
2. Shen J, Wenger N, Glaspy J, Hays RD, Albert PS, Choi C, Shekelle PG. “Electroacupuncture for control of myeloablative chemotherapy-induced emesis: A randomized controlled trial.” JAMA 284:2755-61, 2000.
A small study titled “Acute Effect of Oatmeal on Subjective Measures of Appetite and Satiety Compared to Ready-to-Eat Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Study” was recently published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition.
The study showed that a simple low caloric, high satisfaction breakfast primarily of oatmeal “can prolong the period between meals and thus help establish habits conducive to weight loss.”
β-glucan content of the oatmeal, a viscous fiber, seems to result in the high satiety index of oatmeal. Its important to note that the oatmeal be as unprocessed as possible, for example muesli is only half as satisfying as oatmeal using the satiety index.
The Satiety Index of foods was developed by Susanna Holt PhD, and associates at the University Of Sydney. It adds a further refinement to other food indexes such as the Glycemic Index
Interestingly even though boiled potatoes are high on the Glycemic Index they are also the highest food on the Satiety Index. Meaning that if you fill up on them (note, not fries) you will stay full for a long time and therefore eat less. If you eat them with other foods, you will eat less.
More on this at http://www.mendosa.com/satiety.htm
The Pima Paradox also shows how a high Satiety Index can greatly alter a high Glycemic Index score.
Whereas the Pima Indians have a significant genetic propensity toward diabetes which manifests in those consuming (in Arizona) a modern diet of plentiful refined carbohydrates, animal fat and protein. Their traditional diet (still consumed in Mexico) however comprises large amounts of corn and potatoes as well as activity, resulting in lean body mass and rare incidence of hyperinsulinemia, obesity and type 2 diabetes (NIDDM).
Thomas Martin LAc.
A small study comparing outcomes for moderate to severe depression in three groups; standard care, counseling and acupuncture was published last this week in PLOS Medicine.
In this pragmatic randomised controlled trial conducted in the North of England, patients with depression were randomised to receive 12 weekly sessions of acupuncture plus usual care (302 patients), or 12 weekly sessions of counselling plus usual care (302 patients), or usual care alone (151 patients).
Both the acupuncture and the counseling groups resulted in significant improvement in depression scores over standard care alone. Improvements were stable at 3 months post treatment. All study groups continued with standard medical treatments such as antidepressants.
Commentary given considered the study as validating acupuncture as an evidence-based treatment for depression in an integrative environment.
A frequent side-benefit of acupuncture treatment for a variety of conditions is improved wellbeing. The study demonstrates this effect to be robust enough to improve moderate to severe depression scores. It seems reasonable to expect an even greater treatment effect in mild to moderate depression.
Clinically I have seen good success in managing bouts of mild to moderate depression combining acupuncture with an Albizzia based Chinese herbal formula.
Thomas Martin LAc.
Sixty-eight of 111 patients from the Kansai region of Japan who were diagnosed as having COPD and were receiving standard medication participated in a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial. COPD is considered a non-reversible condition that can severely reduce lung function. It is predicted to be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2020.
In both groups patients were treated with real or placebo needling at the same acupoints once a week for 12 weeks.The placebo needling involved an apparatus that looked like a real acupuncture needle but only pressed the skin surface.
The primary end point, or study result was the modified Borg scale score evaluated immediately after the 6-minute walk test. This is a scale used to evaluate shortness of breath after exertion.
After 12 weeks, the Borg scale score after the 6-minute walk test was significantly better in the real acupuncture group compared with the placebo acupuncture group. Also improvements in nutritional status, body mass and over-all quality of life was seen in the acupuncture group.
We demonstrated clinically relevant improvements in DOE (Borg scale), nutrition status (including BMI), airflow obstruction, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life after 3 months of acupuncture treatment
In clinical practice I have often seen improved breathing and voice strength following acupuncture treatment even when the lungs or chest was not the primary focus of treatment. Acupuncture can be a valuable adjunctive treatment for chronic asthma and I have seen it to be of considerable help with breathlessness in people with a cancer diagnosis. Improved wellbeing and functionality is another non-specific outcome often seen following a course of acupuncture.
Thomas J Martin LAc.
A significant number of breast cancer survivors develop a long-term, difficult to treat, symptom called lymphedema. This involves swelling of the arm, shoulder or breast on the side in which breast tumors and lymph nodes were removed and or radiation treatment performed. The swelling is due to changes in flow of the fluid within lymph vessels in the area, though the exact process is unknown.
Results from a small pilot study led by Barrie r. Cassileth, chief of Memorial Sloan-Kettering’s Integrative Medicine Service, and Clifford a. Hudis, chief of the Breast Cancer Medicine Service, was published April 10 in The Journal Cancer
Study participants received acupuncture at Memorial Sloan-Kettering twice weekly for four weeks, using a regimen developed by the Integrative Medicine Service.
Researchers measured the participants’ upper-arm circumference before and after the treatments. They found that among the 33 patients who received acupuncture, 11 had a significant reduction in swelling and another 18 had at least a small reduction. When contacted several weeks later for feedback, patients reported lasting improvement in swelling.
Dr. Cassileth stated the study showed that acupuncture as a treatment for lymphedema is safe and well tolerated with no serious side effects.
These results confirm what I have seen clinically treating this condition in women diagnosed with breast cancer with acupuncture for the past 18 years. One of the main effects of acupuncture being improved blood and lymph flow.
Thomas Martin LAc.
Between 1996 and 2010 the number of CT scans performed across the United States tripled (Dr. Smith-Bindman’s study looked at data on patients who had imaging among one million to two million patients a year from 1996 to 2010 in six health maintenance organizations ) This was thought to result from increased improvement and accessibility to the technology as well as avoidance of medical law suits.
As ionizing radiation is cumulative patients need to be warned of this and life-time amounts tracked. The scans can be very useful diagnostically but who is told for example that the angiogram their doctor orders is equivalent to 800 chest x-rays?
We know from all the data we have today that 2%-3% of cancers in this country are related to use of medical imaging and ionized radiation.
So, why don’t we tell patients when they have a particular imaging scan exactly how many millisievert (mSv) they’re getting exposed to? A CT angiogram of the heart is 16 mSv; a lot is being done to try to reduce that, but that is equivalent to 800 chest x-rays. How about a typical nuclear scan? A lot of patients who are treated in cardiology get this done every year. At 41 mSv, it’s equivalent to 2000 chest x-rays. But patients aren’t told any of this. And not only that, but we could actually measure exactly how many mSv they got by using the same type of radiation badges that the medical professionals use when they work in a cardiac cath lab or in an x-ray suite. But we don’t do that. This is a serious breach of our responsibility to patients.
We have a very important problem here with this runaway use of radiation procedures but no accountability with respect to patients’ exposure. This has come to a crisis point in children. Children who have a diagnosis of a pediatric malignancy, for example, go through all sorts of radiation imaging, and there have been clear-cut trends that this is increasing. It’s worrisome and, in fact, it could even engender additional problems in children burdened with cancer. We really need to change this.
In a digital world, this information could be collected from birth. Every individual should have their mSv exposure through medical imaging recorded cumulatively throughout their life and added to their electronic health record. Hopefully we’ll see that change come about in the future. This is something that’s a big hole in the current way that we work in medicine.
“Your time is limited so don’t waste it living someone else’s life. Don’t be trapped by dogma – which is living with the results of other people’s thinking...” Steve Jobs
I was speaking with a colleague, a fairly recent graduate of a local acupuncture/Oriental Medicine school. She graduated 5 or 6 years ago and told me that she is abandoning her acupuncture career and training for an alternative career. She also told me she knows five other acupuncturist friends from the same class all of whom are looking for work elsewhere.
None of these acupuncturists are surviving on the income from their practices. My colleague, now in her early 40s, stated she has not been able to buy a house and “will never be able to pay off her student loan” because of her career choice. As I will outline below, this is by no means an isolated experience but a widespread phenomenon amongst a majority of acupuncture school graduates. I will show that to make matters worse the very opposite — that acupuncturists are doing well — is being actively promoted online.
It has long been rumored in the profession that a high percentage of acupuncture graduates fail in their practices in the first few years. Over 50% is a number that has been suggested for many years now.
Unemployment and underemployment among acupuncture program graduates is as alarming as it is under-reported.
It’s surprising that the acupuncture profession as a whole does not collect income data. Chiropractors and massage therapists have Bureau of Labor Statistics data, acupuncturists don’t. The only serious professional attempt to ascertain an approximate income picture are these two papers:
The U.S. Acupuncture Workforce: The Economics of Practice by Steven H. Stumpf, EdD, Clifford R. Carr, EdD, Shauna McCuaig, MAcOM, LAc, Simon J. Shapiro, DO, DAOM, LAc and
Unveiling the United States Acupuncture Workforce, by Steven H. Stumpf, EdD,Mary L. Hardy, MD, D. E. Kendall, OMD, LAc, and Clifford R. Carr, EdD. Both papers are posted in full below with the approval of Dr. Stumpf. Unless otherwise indicated all the italicized quotes are from these papers
Despite the existence of national organizations representing the training programs, licensed members, regulatory boards, and an accreditation body recognized by Department of Education, the acupuncture workforce remains outside the healthcare mainstream (Stumpf et al., 2010). For example, valid longitudinal information describing the acupuncture workforce is simply unavailable in the U.S. A recent review by Stumpf et al. (2010) describes a handful of published studies that provide a minimal depiction of how licensed acupuncturists (LAcs) practice e.g., how many hours they work weekly, their annual earnings, and employment arrangements. As a result, it is nearly impossible for aspiring practitioners to acquire accurate information about practice characteristics and, thereby, forecast their potential to practice successfully.
In the surveys analysed in these papers the majority of acupuncturists are earning a gross income of $20,000 to $50,000 per year. But to emphasize how painfully low these numbers are we need to remember that up to half of this gross income will be taken up with tax, liability insurance, rent, practice expenses, continuing education, health care insurance, loan repayment and so on. That’s a take-home income for the majority of practitioners of close to $10,000 to $25,000 per year.
Three states together—California, New York, and Florida— account for approximately 15,050 or 52.8% of all LAcs in the nation (Zabik, 2009). Approximately 37.7% of the LAcs in these three states earn less than $20,000 per year (Acupuncture Today, September 2010). For these graduates the reality of paying back their student loan debt may be viewed as beyond their reach.
For a health-care profession seeking attention as a serious player in today’s increasingly integrated medicine this is shameful, reflecting poorly on the nation’s acupuncture schools that continue to churn out unsuspecting graduates.
Generally speaking, the respondents to these independent surveys charge fees between $20 and $65 per patient visit; work approximately 30 or fewer hours per week; and generate median gross incomes between $20,000 and $50,000.
50% of the licensed acupuncture (LAc) workforce is working less than 30 hr weekly; 50% are earning less than $50,000 on average; and the number of LAcs working independently in practice, either in their own office or sharing one, has increased from approximately 75% to 90%.
It would be reasonable to assume that the situation regarding the financial viability of the acupuncture profession is worse than is outlined in this already dismal picture. Income data gathering of the independent groups within the acupuncture profession referenced in the above papers, most focusing on a treatment style, is likely to contain numerous biases in favor of higher numbers of clients seen and income received for their favored treatment approach.
Self reporting, a significant factor in the surveys reported, is likely influenced by “professional shame” in lacking success, and other psychological factors. Independent data gathering is the only sure path to statistical clarity but such scientific and transparent data seem absent in the profession.
Graduates of the prominent acupuncture training program who completed surveys for this paper averaged $86,979 in student loan debt in 2009. At present, ~65% are enrolled in programs that “kick the can down the road.”
I would submit that most acupuncturists can’t support themselves without either taking a day job, getting health-care insurance and financial support through a spouse, not having children, indefinite student loan debt deferment, living in rental accommodation long-term, relying on financial resources accumulated from prior employment, and many other creative or luck based factors.
Acupuncture schools to this day remain stubbornly entrenched in teaching hopelessly archaic and metaphysically-based programs, indoctrinating students into an anti-modern medicine, or at least separate but equal mindset. “Alternative paradigm” and “Eastern Doctor” are labels often used, though oriental medicine is in fact a diverse mix of different theories and practices, not a relatively unified field — such as is biomedicine. Which, by the way, is the largest , most culturally diverse, globally collaborative medicine in history. The term “Western Medicine” is simply not accurate. Chinese, Korean, Japanese biomedical researchers and doctors are major contributors to modern medicine. Either join this global ongoing scientific revolution or remain in increasing obscurity. It’s hard to see it any other way.
It is important to note that the elaborate theory of energy meridians that acupuncture students must learn has no scientific evidence despite a decades long research effort. (Many acupuncturists/researchers have discussed this fact, Yun-Tao Ma Phd. LAc. for example. See also http://www.ivis.org/proceedings/aaep/2000/220.pdf)
Surprisingly, there is excellent scholarship indicating that the theory of “energy flow” and energy meridians was not the basis of ancient Chinese Medicine, but instead a recently added Western metaphysical concept, with blood flow being the central dynamic feature: http://www.tedpriebe.com/documents/Kendall_SJIM_meridians.pdf
There are strong sub-beliefs within the profession of certain acupuncture styles working better than others. The evidence of treatment efficacy however does not support this apparent diversity, showing no appreciable difference in outcomes between traditional, neo-traditional, new age contemporary and modern medical acupuncture such as Dry Needling. Fads, charismatic teachers, novelty and reference to ancientness continue to generate new acupuncture styles, in effect creating a kind of surrogate evidence of efficacy.
Acupuncture school graduates enter the workforce set up for isolation in the contemporary medical milieu. Questioning and critical thinking is actively discouraged in acupuncture schools, and graduates are often equipped with a New Age attitude that their success or failure depends on their “energy” to attract success, and not on socioeconomic factors and the inadequacy of their training.
Over 90% have no alternative but to develop private practices in a time when increasingly, standard medical practitioners are finding it unviable to do so. Only 4% of acupuncturists are employed in contemporary medical facilities. The few employment opportunities available within the profession often entail low hourly rates, no benefits such as vacation pay or health-care insurance, or other types of professional support. In such low-paid acupuncture industry situations, clients are usually treated in clinics by groups of acupuncturists, thereby diluting the practitioner/client relationship. Treatment of a particular client is often repeated at length with little or no consistent treatment plan.
Insurance reimbursements to acupuncturists are continually being reduced and client deductibles continue to rise. Medical spending is at its lowest rate in five decades.
There is a very limited job market for acupuncturists, with the only significant employers being acupuncture schools and drug treatment programs . . . Opportunities for acupuncturists to participate in the health care system in the same way other providers do are limited
The future, IMHO
We have a profession whose central defining practice (acupuncture) can be just as effectively utilized in a simple, fairly easily learned way, in a form entirely integrated within modern biomedicine. Oriental medicine is not the primary reason clients seek out an acupuncturist, they just want to get better and have heard that acupuncture might help. If they go often enough they may become suborned into the mindset of energy and meridians, but the original motivation holds; desire for improved health. The question arises, is an independent professional future even realistic for acupuncturists?
The status quo means increasing marginalization and a “99%” type scenario, with a few practitioners doing well and the majority struggling or failing. Income by acupuncturists will decline further as will professional standards. Getting acupuncture may become like having a chair massage. As the above income data becomes more commonly known, acupuncture schools will likely see a fall off in enrollment.
Simple acupuncture techniques like Dry Needling, and Biomedical Acupuncture based on contemporary science and physiology, will be increasingly appropriated by other medical professions. These approaches, sensitive to evidence-based updates, have shown the same outcomes as traditional styles in studies, yet can be taught in a short time to appropriately medically trained individuals.
Many researchers have pointed out that the type of acupuncture doesn’t make a difference in outcomes: To quote Dr. Andrew Vickers, a longstanding acupuncture researcher:
The type of acupuncture didn’t seem to make a difference to the results, said Dr. Vickers. “Some acupuncturists will tell you not to go to such and such a person because that person doesn’t put the needles in the right way, or they don’t use the right theories, or they’re not as well trained, but the particular type of acupuncture you get doesn’t seem to make a large difference.”
A Possible Alternative
The acupuncture profession as we now see it may well become an obscure historical entity harking back to a proud isolated alternative medicine mindset of the 1970’s.
Acupuncture colleges that have the foresight and freedom from current metaphysical dogma could develop primary care programs similar to those of NP’s and PA’s and teach modern biomedical acupuncture and functional medicine based herbology and nutrition. If they did this, high quality students would be attracted and new jobs for graduates would become available within the medical establishment. Current practices and products could be sifted by the transparent clarity of modern scientific medicine, brought into the 21st century through critical review and evidence.
Such colleges could also teach short acupuncture courses to other medical professions, having some play in what is inevitable anyhow.
These colleges would have an ethical responsibility to link success of their programs to the ability of graduates to pay down their loan debts in a prescribed period of time, thereby linking curriculum to actual job markets and the contemporary medical ethos. This responsibility, it seems, is currently evaded by most acupuncture schools.
The colleague I mentioned at the beginning of the article stated that although she enjoys the work, she would not choose to be an acupuncturist if she had her time all over again. Another colleague who has been in practice 15 years expressed the same sentiment. One wonders how many others among the nation’s practicing acupuncturists would concur?
Misinformation abounds on the web…
“A licensed acupuncturist after one year out of school can expect to make $45,000 a year and up. After five years in practice, one’s income should approach $100,000.
$200,000-300,000 a year is not unrealistic within 10 years in practice.”
“The starting salary of individuals in this profession averages $49,844 annually. Salaries after 10 years of practice peak at $133,700 annually.”
This website actually places ‘acupuncturist’ as a job receiving the highest salary among nine other medical professions.
“Average annual salary for a Licensed Acupuncturist is $51716 based on statistics in the U.S. as of 2013.”
Note the over-sell, the casual misinformation, the confusion of ‘salary’ with business revenue, and the attractiveness of it all for the unsuspecting applicant prepared to put themselves into major debt. A debt they are likely not to pay off in over 10 years in practice, or even in another career.
Even the Council Of Colleges Of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine (CCAOM) happily perpetuates this deception. Note the following FAQ from their website –
How much can an AOM practitioner expect to earn?
There are approximately 20,000-25,000 AOM licensees throughout the United States. A recent estimate, which is based on job postings, reports an annual income range between $30,000-$60,000 and notes that gross annual income can be as much as $105,000.
CCAOM must know that there are very few “job postings” for the 20,000 to 25,000 acupuncturists mentioned. What is the hope for honesty and transparency if a major professional organization prefers to present myth over truth.
Occasionally one can find clear criticism of the confusing presentation of income data, deliberate or otherwise, as with this post questioning the Oregon College Of Oriental Medicine’s graduate data by Lisa Rohleder LAc – OCOM Redefines Acupuncture as a Hobby for Girls –
That would be “the Sugar Daddy business model”, in which an acupuncturist asserts that he or she is successful in his or her practice, because in reality he or she doesn’t need to earn a living, since his or her partner/husband/ wife has a real job and supports their household. Plenty of acupuncturists, regardless of gender, claim this kind of success. https://www.pocacoop.com/prick-prod-provoke/post/ocom-re-defines-acupuncture-as-a-hobby-for-girls
A Decision Based On The Facts
Remember the quote above from Steve Stumpf et al. “it is nearly impossible for aspiring practitioners to acquire accurate information about practice characteristics and, thereby, forecast their potential to practice successfully.”
So if you’re thinking of going to acupuncture school here’s how it probably shapes up. Not inevitable, but likely, based on the experience of the majority.
For the first few years after graduation it’s touch and go if you are even able to stay in practice – most likely you will be struggling to set up a private practice outside the support employment offers. If you survive that, statistically speaking you need to have a spouse to support you and to get health-care insurance through. Or you will need another source of income such as another job, an inheritance, savings, something. Frugality is good!
If you gain employment in the industry, such as detox clinics or low cost public health facilities, you will be part-time, without benefits, often treating the same individuals over and over with a vague or no treatment plan. There will be no union watching out for you.
In some measure you will be deferring your $80,000 to $100,000 loan debt, so forget about buying a house and treat your old car well. You will feel the need to learn new acupuncture styles and do business development courses. There are plenty of people ready to bill your credit card for these.
You’ll need to keep up with CEU’s, and pay Liability Insurance. You’ll find yourself with a whole set of beliefs that other medical practitioners don’t seem to care about. You’ll wonder why the Law Of Attraction isn’t working for you…
Or you may be one of the lucky ones – your acupuncture program would have quietly encouraged that feeling all through your training.
But, for sure, you are a good person, sincerely wanting to help others, and life is indeed an adventure of endless learning, not a bank account. Stay flexible, be creative, jettison most of your acupuncture college training, re-discover your own thinking. Learn from your clients: they, your real teachers will be paying you! Change direction if needed. Enjoy making small differences, as in real life; they are the differences that count. Good luck.
Thomas Martin LAc.
The following is a letter from a recent Acupuncture School graduate who read the above post. The statistics outlined in the post reveal that Michael’s difficult journey, which by no means has yet ended, is shared by a great many. Their plight, in most cases, is not from personal lack of talent or hard work but from deliberate and passive misinformation disseminated from professional schools and organizations.
Thank you for your blog entry “Acupuncture Profession in Crisis”.
I had a rough two years after graduating from Tri-State Collge of Acupuncture in 2011. I simply couldn’t make any money in acupuncture (I lost money, actually). With that, my confidence dropped and eventually had such a problem with anxiety and panic attacks that I stopped practicing. I have $140K debt (including personal) and was so optimistic that I would pay the loans back. But working in acupuncture in NYC means community acupuncture, which was half of what I made as a waiter.
It’s very sad, but I knew that if I didn’t leave, I would be wasting precious time that could be used to find a profession where I could make better money.
While it makes me angry, to think the school promised so much, I kick myself for not looking further. I don’t want acupuncture to go away, but I think people need to know the facts.
Thank you again. I hope more people thinking of going into acupuncture will read this entry!
Thomas Martin LAc.
While caffeine has been demonized by CAM practitioners for decades an increasing number of studies are supporting tea and coffee consumption in moderated daily quantities (even in some studies what would generally be considered excessive consumption). Coffee which contains numerous flavonoids, chlorogenic acid and the antioxidant caffeine, has been shown to to reduce incidence of several diseases and support healthy brain function.
A study conducted at the University of South Florida and the University of Miami involving 124 people aged 65 to 88 was published 6/5/12 in the Journal Of Alzheimer’s Disease. It showed that those individuals with the highest blood caffeine levels actually avoided conversion of mild memory impairment to Alzheimers disease in the 2 to 4 year period in which the study was conducted.
“These intriguing results suggest that older adults with mild memory impairment who drink moderate levels of coffee — about 3 cups a day — will not convert to Alzheimer’s disease — or at least will experience a substantial delay before converting to Alzheimer’s,” said study lead author Dr. Chuanhai Cao, a neuroscientist at the USF College of Pharmacy and the USF Health Byrd Alzheimer’s Institute. “The results from this study, along with our earlier studies in Alzheimer’s mice, are very consistent in indicating that moderate daily caffeine/coffee intake throughout adulthood should appreciably protect against Alzheimer’s disease later in life.”
The following article published by the Life Extension Foundation, an integrative medicine research organization, outlines the numerous health benefits of coffee –
- Decaffeinated and caffeinated coffee lowered the risk of kidney stones in women by 9 and 10%, respectively.
- Caffeinated coffee reduced the incidence of gallstones and gall bladder disease in both men and women.
- Scientists found that coffee boosted regular weight loss by 8 pounds and promoted body fat metabolism.
- Sometimes-inconsistent findings have generally linked coffee drinking with reduced all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality.
- For athletes, caffeine reduced muscle pain, increased energy (ergogenic aid), and enhanced endurance.
- One study found caffeine, taken 2 hours before exercise, prevented exercise-induced asthma.
- Confirming earlier research, a 2011 study on over 50,000 women found that 4 cups of coffee daily lowered the risk of depression by 20%, compared to coffee abstainers.
- Antibacterials in coffee were found to inhibit plaque formation and prevent dental decay.
- Whether caffeinated or decaffeinated, coffee consumption prevents constipation and – despite the myth that coffee dehydrates the body – contributes to the body’s fluid requirements.
- Caffeine is believed to boost by 40% the effectiveness of pain relievers against headaches. Caffeine also helps the body absorb headache medications more quickly.
A large, as-yet-unpublished study presented October 24, 2011, found that men and women with the highest coffee consumption have a 13% and 18% lower risk, respectively, for basal cell carcinoma (a type of skin cancer).129
The May 14, 2011, issue of Breast Cancer Research reported that postmenopausal women who consumed 5 cups of coffee daily exhibited a 57% decrease in their risk of developing ER-negative
A promising study appeared in the June 8, 2011, issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The research team reported that men who drank over 6 cups of coffee a day had an 18% lower risk of prostate cancer – and a 40% lower risk of aggressive or lethal prostate cancer.
A 2009 meta-analysis in the Annals of Internal Medicine combined data on over 450,000 people and found that every additional cup per day of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee lowered the risk of diabetes by 5 to 10%.
Caffeinated coffee has also been associated with protection against Parkinson’s disease, the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer’s. A study of 29,000 individuals found that one to four cups daily decreased the risk of Parkinson’s by 47% and 5 or more cups decreased the risk by 60%.
Many epidemiological studies show that the risk of diabetes drops directly according to the amount of coffee consumed. For instance, scientists found that overall risk is reduced by:
- 1. 13% with one cup a day
- 2. 47% with 4 cups a day,
- 3. 67% with 12 cups a day.
It’s noted that most of the benefits outlined are available with decaffeinated coffee as well. Also for many people coffee is the major or only source of polyphenols in the diet so those consuming a whole foods largely plant-based diet will already likely have significant reduction in incidence of diseases mentioned above. It’s also difficult to deduce which of the 1,000 phytochemicals contained in coffee are responsible for improved health though chlorogenic acid and caffeine may have significant play in neurodegenerative disorders.
Thomas Martin LAc.